Time: 21/2 hours
THE KENYA NATIONAL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
CERTIFICATE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT
CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOLOGY
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
This question paper consists of TWO section; A and B.
Answer ALL questions in section A.
Answer any FOUR questions from section B.
SECTION A (40 Marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.
1. a) Define the term temperament.
b) Identify FIVE characteristics of a difficult child.
c) Outline three ways a pre–school teacher would enhance positive behavior in a difficult child.
2. a) Explain the term placement as used in Special Needs Education.
b) Give four reasons for the placement of children with Special Needs.
c) Outline four ways in which a special Needs Education (SNE) teacher may negatively affect delivery of services offered in a special unit for the mentally handicapped children in Kenya.
3, a) State four harmful effects of radiation exposure to the foetus.
b) Outline four developmental characteristics of a foetus during the third trimester.
c) Identify two secondary sex characteristics that appear in girls during puberty.
4. a) Define the term disaster.
b) Explain four ways in which famine would affect the rights of a child in an ECDE.
SECTION B (60 marks)
Answer any FOUR questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 9.
5. a) Explain four factors that may contribute to occurrence of sexual abuse among young children in Kenya.
b) Give seven ways in which an ECDE teacher would cater for individual differences among pre – school children.
( 7 marks)
6. a) Discuss five ways in which low socio – economic status may negatively affect learning of a pre – school child.
b) Examine five strategies that an ECDE teacher would put in place to protect children’s rights in an area affected by tribal clashes.
7. a) Give two functions of each of the following human reproductive organs:
b) i) Identify the type of sex chromosome that determine the formation of baby boy.
ii) Discuss five type of child birth delivery.
8. a) State five characteristics of children’s department in the Ministry of Gender in Kenya that hinder the promotion of child rights and protection.
b) Discuss five gaps in the children’s department in the Ministry of Gender in Kenya that hinder the promotion of child rights and protection.
9. a) Identify seven difficulties experienced by young children living with parents serving a jail term in prison in Kenya.
b) Explain how any four body organs in young children may react to different allergic attacks.