Exam Year:2012

6012
GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY, PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
December 2012
Time: 3 hours

THE KENYA NATIONAL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
DIPLOMA IN EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION

GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY, PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT,
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING

3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above.
Sign and write the date of examination in the spaces provided above.
This paper consists of SIX questions.
Answer any FIVE questions in the spaces provided after question 6.
Each question carries a total of 20 marks.
Do not remove any pages from this booklet.

This paper consists of 16 printed pages.
Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the
Pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.

1. a) Define the following terms:
i) Psychology;
(2 marks)
ii) Education psychology.
(2 marks)
b) Give two strengths and two limitations of using experimental method to study the behavior of children.
(4 marks)
c) i) Examine seven characteristics that an Early Childhood Development and Education (ECDE) teacher would use to determine the average level of intelligence in a pre – school child.
(7 marks)
ii) Propose five benefits to a pre – school teacher in identifying behavioural problems of young children in an ECDE centre.
(5 marks)

2. a) Outline five benefits of group counseling of children in an ECDE centre.
(5 marks)
b) Identify eight ways in which an ECDE teacher would help a child who exhibits emotional problems.
(8 marks)
c) Highlight seven negative effects of poor nutrition to the learning of young children in an ECDE centre.
(7 marks)

3. a) Outline five characteristics that a pre – school teacher would use to determine a child with hyperactivity disorder in an ECDE centre.
(5 marks)

b) In five ways, justify the importance of listening skills in counseling pre – school children.
(5 marks)
c) Describe the five stages that a counselee goes through during termination of a counseling process.
(10 marks)

4. a) Explain what is meant by concept formation as used in psychology.
(3 marks)
b) Discuss five categories of learning in children according to Gagne’s theory of concept formation.
(10 marks)
c) Examine seven ways in which motivation positively influences learning in an ECDE centre.
(7 marks)
5. a) Describe Carl Rogers theory of personality development.
(7 marks)
b) Assess seven ways in which honesty is an important value among young children is an ECDE centre.
(7 marks)
c) Outline six characteristics of agreeableness as a personality trait among pre – school children.
(6 marks)
6. a) i) Define the term defense mechanisms.
(2 marks)
ii) Examine six causes of defense mechanisms in young children.
(6 marks)
b) Identify seven challenges that an ECDE teacher may encounter when using field trips as a method of teaching life skills to pre – school children.
(7 marks)
c) Explain the following elements of classical conditioning as used by Ivan Pavlvov:

i) Neutral stimulus;
(1 mark)
ii) Unconditional stimulus;
(1 mark)
iii) Conditioned stimulus;
(1 mark)
iv) Unconditioned response;
(1 mark)
v) Conditioned response.
(1 mark)