Time: 3 hours
THE KENYA NATIONAL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
DIPLOMA IN EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
This paper consists of SIX questions.
Answer any FIVE questions in the space provided after question 6.
Each question carry a total of 20 marks
Candidates should answer the questions in English.
1. a) Define the term Adolescence.
b) Describe three levels of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development.
c) Outline nine measures that the media group have taken to positively influence socialization of pre – adolescents in Kenya.
2. a) Propose four ways in which a pre–school teacher would promote a child’s right to survival.
b) Examine six ways in which an early Childhood Development and Education (ECDE) teacher would handle the challenge of egocentrism among 3 years old children in an ECDE centre.
c) According to research finding 0 – 6 years in a critical period for child growth and development. Discuss five reasons.
3. a) Describe the process that occur during the first trimester in pre – natal development.
b) Give five reasons that make it necessary for an ECDE teacher to understand the psychomotor developmental milestones of children between 3 – 8 years.
c) Discuss five challenges that may affect personality development of children between 2- 3 years according to the psychosocial theory of Erik Erikson.
4. a) Explain the term socialization in relation to child growth and development.
b) Identify eight precautions that biological parents should take to ensure holistic development of a foetus.
c) Discuss five strategies that an ECDE teacher would use to minimize negative peer influence among pre – school children as they socialize in an ECDE centre.
5. a) Outline five ways in which parents would help adolescents acquire positive values.
b) Identify five benefits of emotional guidance to adolescents.
c) Discuss five reasons that would make an ECDE teacher consider aesthetic development significant for 3 year old children.
6. a) Identify five services that pre–school children receive from caregivers in an ECDE centre.
b) Examine the parental role during physical development of pre – adolescents.
c) Discuss five psychosocial issues teenagers cope with during adolescence period.