Time: 3 hours
THE KENYA NATIONAL EXAMINATIONS COUNCI
DIPLOMA IN MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY
PARASITOLOGY AND HISTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
This paper consists of TWO sections: A and B.
Answer ALL questions in section A and any THREE questions from section B.
Each question in section A carries 4 marks, while each question in section B carries 20 marks.
Maximum marks for each part of a question are indicated.
SECTION A (40 marks)
Answer ALL questions in this section.
1. (a) For each of the following parasites, name the definitive an intermediate host:
(i) Leishmania braziliensis; (1 mark)
(ii) Fasciolopsis buski. (1 mark)
(b) State four parasitic factors which influence whether an infection causes a disease of clinical significance. (2 marks)
2. (a) State the use of Beyer”s solution in parasitology laboratory (2 marks)
(b) Explain the use of SAF (Sodium acetate Acetic Formaldehyde) and why it is a preferred reagent to PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol). (2 marks)
3. Outline the Baerman”s method for concentration of Strongyloides larvae in faeces. (4 marks)
4. Draw a labelled diagram of a Giardia lamblia cyst. (4 marks)
5. By use of an arrow diagram, illustrate the life cycle of plasmodium species in a human. (4 marks)
6. Describe prevention and control of hydatidosis. (4 marks)
7. (a) Identify the following types of epithelium:
(b) Illustrate by the use of a diagram the following epithelium:
(i) ciliated columnar;
(ii) Squamous. (2 marks)
8. State any two advantages and disadvantages of alcohol fixation. (4 marks)
9. Describe moulding by use of plastic embedding cassettes.(4 marks)
10. State any four characteristics of an ideal permanent mounting media. (4 marks)
SECTION B (60 marks)
Answer any THREE questions from this section.
11. (a) State the circumstances under which immuno-diagnosis of parasitic infections becomes necessary. (4 marks)
(b) Outline the ELISA technique for diagnosis of parasitic diseases. (13 marks)
(c) Explain why interpretation of antibody tests in parasitic infections can be misleading even on correctly carried out tests. (3 marks)
12. (a) Differentiate between fertilized and unfertilized eggs of Ascaris lubricoides. (4 marks)
(b) Describe the transmission and life-cycle of Ascaris lubricoides. (16 marks)
13. (a) State the medical importance of each of the following arthropods:
(iii) Triatomine/Kissing bug;
(v) Anaplura phthrigus.
(b) Discuss Anopheles mosquito under the following headings:
(i) diseases transmitted;
(ii) feeding habits;
(iii) breeding sites.
(c) Describe the breeding sites and life-cycle of sandflies. (9 marks)
14. (a) Explain the advantages of an automatic tissue processor.(10 marks)
(b) Explain impregnation of tissue blocks with paraffin wax.(10 marks)
15. Outline the staining procedure of paraffin wax sections with Haematoxylin-eosin stain.
Indicate the results of this staining procedure for a muscle tissue. (20 marks)